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文献:梅乐与“桃花源”历史

文献:梅乐与“桃花源”历史

Documentation: Mei Le and History of Peach Blossom Land


源起于中国的“桃花源”有着强烈的自然山水美景的形象,最早以文字记载下来的是陶渊明的《桃花源记》(公元376-396)。后人针对“桃花源”传说所作的图绘基本上由陶渊明的文字为参考,发展出不同表现模式。“桃花源”传说和“桃源图”图绘共同塑造了整个“桃花源”意象,并同时以文字和图绘两种不同形式持续发展。

Originating from China and first documented in Peach Blossom Spring (AD 376-396) by Tao Yuanming, the Peach Blossom Land has been imparted with the intensity of beauty of natural landscape. Paintings on the Peach Blossom Land by successors have basically drawn reference from Tao’s script and developed into different forms of articulation. The legendary story and following paintings of it have jointly forged the imagery of Peach Blossom Land, which has since been continuously enriched and extended, literarily and graphically.

在陶渊明看来,那种无政治存在的完全自由,正是“桃花源”之得以为仙境的根本关键。它的“无政治”理想尤其对于哪些饱受政治迫害或深陷于政治斗争漩涡中的人而言,最能产生吸引力。这种仙境对应的图绘有五代阮郜《阆苑女仙图》和高丽《御制秘藏诠》。

From Tao’s consideration, the fundamental thing underlying the Peach Blossom Land’s property of being a fairyland is its complete liberation from politics. Such ideal of the absence of politics, or “non-politicalness”,was so affecting in particular for those undergoing political persecution and badly involved in political conflicts. Fairy of the Blessed Land (Langyuan Xiannv) by Ruan Gao of the Five Dynasties and Comments on the Emperor-Commissioned Hoard of the Goryeo state are two painting examples presenting the fairyland.

后来中国士人文化开始质疑桃花源仙境的本质,最具代表性人物为苏轼(公元1036-1101)。他除了否定桃花源为仙境外,还举证其可现实存在于人世间的高度可能性。他在《和桃源诗序》开头便说“世传桃源事,多过其实”。人世化“桃花源”图绘将仙境山水和田园山水混合一起, 此类代表作有赵伯驹的《桃源图卷》。

As time went by, the Chinese literati culture started to question the essence of Peach Blossom Land, with the most typical representative Su Dongpo (1036-1101). Su did not recognize the Peach Blossom Land as a fairyland and raised evidence arguing the very possibility of its existence in the real world. In his Prefacing the Peach Blossom Land Poem, Su begun with “Anecdotes about the Peach Blossom Land are mostly exaggerating”. The mundane versions of Peach Blossom Land paintings, the Peach Blossom Land Roll by Zhao Boju for example, have combined the landscape of wonderland and idyll.

同时另一种完全脱离仙境山水,以纯朴风俗来表现桃源世界的图绘出现,如马和之《桃源图卷》,它与人世间的距离用末端那云气中的宫殿来处理。这个模式特别突显一种追求纯朴自由之桃源理想过程中,舍弃人间荣华富贵的觉悟。

At the same time, another genre of Peach Blossom Land paintings featuring the plain folk customs and so differentiated from the fairy-style arose, Ma He’s Peach Blossom Land Roll that works out the distance between the artistic setting and the mortal world by depicting a mist-and-cloud-surrounded palace located in the end of painting included. Such pattern of artistic expression has particularly emphasized the awareness of looking little of fame and wealth in the pursuit for the Peach Blossom Land of purity and unsophisticatedness.

十四世纪中国南方文人开始流行隐居山水主题,此主题与“桃花源”的互动进一步淡化仙境传说,加强人世化,陶渊明之桃花源的“当代”版本,典型图绘代表为王蒙《花溪渔隐》。

The seclusive landscape painting category became a trend among the Chinese southern literati in the 14th century, and started to interact with the motif of Peach Blossom Land, through which the legendariness was weakened while mortalness augmented. Back then, Wang Meng’s Hidden Fishes in the Flowery Streams was considered the “contemporary” version of Tao’s tale.

由于与中国的密切外交、文化交流,韩国很早就有使用桃花源之意象来表达他们对仙境或相似之理想境地的赞美和期待。15世纪,安坚参考佛经图绘,创作《梦游桃源图》。同期,日本京都五山禅僧作为中日之间文化交流的主要桥梁,身处政治和宗教在现实中复杂纠缠的环境中,陶渊明的典范形象经过佛家的转化,桃花源化身也出现在五山文化中,与之相伴随有不少图绘一起促成桃花源的流行。

Due to China’s diplomacy and cultural output, Korea has long before adapted the imagery of Peach Blossom Land to embody their praise and longing for such similar land of ideality. In the 15th century, An Jian referred to the graphic paintings on the Buddhist sutras to create his Dreaming the Peach Blossom Land. In the same period, Wushan (Five Mountains) Zen Monk of Kyoto was notably bridging Chinese and Japanese culture and fit in the complexity of politics and religion. With the typified persona of Tao transformed by Buddhism, the incarnated Peach Blossom Land became part of the Wushan culture and along with following themed paintings cultivated the prevailing of the legend.

近代,众多知识分子通过文字来描述自己心中的桃花源,从寓意来讲,都属“乌托邦”、“理想国”。

When it came to the modern era, the idea of Peach Blossom Land adapted by many intellectuals to elaborate his/her own state of mind, were allegorically a token of utopia.

二十世纪的一百年,人类社会的经济、科技实现前所未有的跨越,人们对于生命、空间、宇宙、宗教有了全新认识,当代桃花源自然不再只具有单一属性。在人类交通、通讯发达的今天,人们不相信桃花源这种理想生活空间会存在于眼前世界,用常规逻辑和人类经验已无法解释。

Over the 20th century, human beings have achieved unprecedented economic and technological accomplishment and acquired brand new understanding on life, space, cosmos, religion and so on, and the notion of Peach Blossom Land has consequently been enabled with multiple layers of understanding. In the present era when transportation and communication are so advanced, people are no longer convinced with the actual existence of any wonderland like Peach Blossom Land, as it won’t be thought through by common logics and human experience.

梅乐延续前人的思路,基于中国现状及全球语境,赋予桃花源一个全新诠释。历经一千多年发展,梅乐的桃花源突显其“当代性”,它既是超越现实的多维度空间又是以能量场方式充满眼前世界,同时具备极乐世界特征。 梅乐将自己置身于桃花源历史中,这既是一种现实行为,又是一场模拟行动。

Extending the clues of thinking of his predecessors and given the current situation of China as well as the global context, Mei Le vests the Peach Blossom Land with an unattempted articulation. With the notion’s evolvement of over one thousand years, what is highlighted in Mei Le’s Peach Blossom Land is its contemporaneity, as it is presented to all in the form of both a surrealistic multi-dimensional space and an energy field, yet still dressed in an elysian ideality. Swimming himself in the river of history of Peach Blossom Land, Mei Le is taking an action of reality, and of simulation.

参考引用:《移动的桃花源——东亚世界中的山水画》(作者:石守谦)
Reference: The Moving Peach Blossom Land, Landscape Painting in the East Asia World – Shi Shouqian

英文翻译:许晓亮
Translated by Xu Xiaoliang


桃花源之声 The Voice of Peach Blossom Land

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